From Pikipedia, the Pikmin wiki
The Geographic Projection (ジオグラフィックシステム?, lit.: "Geographic System") is a treasure in Pikmin 2. It is the southern hemisphere of a globe; this being a representation of Earth suggests that PNF-404 is Earth. Retrieving the treasure unlocks the Survey Chart, part of the Exploration Kit, which allows the Pikmin leaders to progress to the Perplexing Pool. This is because it contains data that holds coordinates that makes locating this new area possible. The Spherical Atlas is also a globe half, this time a northern hemisphere, and it too unlocks an area to land in (the Awakening Wood).
The name is a reference to geographic projection, a way of mapping a sphere's surface onto a flat plane.
Collecting the treasure
The item is found in the same place as the Yellow Onion in the first game. This heavy treasure is found in the Awakening Wood, making it the only aboveground treasure that makes up the Explorer's Friend Series, and requires Purple Pikmin to be picked up, due to the fact that its weight is 101 and thus 100 weaker Pikmin cannot lift it. It is slightly buried and located near the longest constructible bridge in the area, behind a poison gate near the Hole of Beasts. A Creeping Chrysanthemum is nearby.
Model and texture
Just like the Spherical Atlas, this treasure's model was also changed in each region of the game such that the "front" of the model is a specific part of the globe. Unlike the Spherical Atlas however, these locations don't quite match the region of the game's copy. In the North American version, the "front" of the globe is South America, which makes sense. But in the Japanese version, it is also South America. Since there is no area related to Japan in the southern hemisphere, South America is as good a place as any other. In the European version, it shows Oceania, perhaps to highlight the fact that Australian players use the European version.
On top of that, it is worth noting that the texture for this model is actually flipped horizontally. This means that if one were to flip the treasure upright, Africa would be to the left of South America, which would be to the left of Europe. It is not known whether this is a mistake or if it was flipped on purpose, since the treasure is only ever seen upside-down and most people are used to the opposite orientation.
Like the Spherical Atlas, the highlight texture is called
“The interior of this hemisphere contains a chip coded with charts detailing a new region. I explored this forest the last time I was here, but it's clear that it has undergone some dramatic changes. The plants and animals have also evolved significantly. I've given this forest a new name... The Awakening Wood. I must begin to form a hypothesis to explain why the forest changed so rapidly.”
“If you have both pieces, does the value increase? Do you want it? Need it? Crave it? You should. This is the ultimate storehouse of geographic data in the known universe.”
“Fascinating! This object is highly similar to the one you found in the Valley of Repose.
By examining this further, I may be able to extrapolate new planetary data!
This hemisphere also contains a hidden microchip! I will attempt to decrypt the stored data...
Decoding complete! As I surmised, this chip contains additional topographic data.The data has been inputted into my database. I shall name it the Survey Chart!”
Names in other languages